Sputtering of Alloys

What Is Sputtering of Alloys? Thin film alloys or composites of various compositions can be deposited via Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processing in a variety of different ways. Probably the most common practice is to simply sputter the alloy or composite material...

Thin Film Solar Cells

What Are Thin Film Solar Cells? This year has been busy so far visiting customers and attending a number of Trade Shows around the world and to my surprise, albeit based on a limited number of direct conversations with various technical personnel associated with a...

Rate Change as a Function of Target Life

Recently we received an enquiry as to the reason behind the changes in deposition rate during the life of a Sputtering Target. Negatively charged electrons in the plasma are repelled by the negatively charged current applied to the sputtering target surface (like...

Producing Metal Oxide Films

Metal oxide films can be sputtered from either an elemental metallic (M) target or from a metal oxide (MOx) target. However, as one might expect, the deposition parameters are significantly different depending on the starting material composition. However, it is...

Power Density Limits and Target Conditioning

I really think that we have beaten this issue to death however, almost weekly, we get a customer request asking us to explain how best to condition or “Break In” a new sputtering target and what is the maximum power level that they could apply to it....