Sputtering of Alloys

Thin film alloys or composites of various compositions can be deposited via Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processing in a variety of different ways. Probably the most common practice is to simply sputter the alloy or composite material from a homogeneous alloy or...

Thin Film Solar Cells

This year has been busy so far visiting customers and attending a number of Trade Shows around the world and to my surprise, albeit based on a limited number of direct conversations with various technical personnel associated with a number of different companies, I...

Rate Change as a Function of Target Life

Recently we received an enquiry as to the reason behind the changes in deposition rate during the life of a Sputtering Target. Negatively charged electrons in the plasma are repelled by the negatively charged current applied to the sputtering target surface (like...

Producing Metal Oxide Films

Metal oxide films can be sputtered from either an elemental metallic (M) target or from a metal oxide (MOx) target. However, as one might expect, the deposition parameters are significantly different depending on the starting material composition. However, it is...

Power Density Limits and Target Conditioning

I really think that we have beaten this issue to death however, almost weekly, we get a customer request asking us to explain how best to condition or “Break In” a new sputtering target and what is the maximum power level that they could apply to it....

Deposition of Complex Composite Materials

There is still a bit of “Magic” associated with sputtering, but how the resultant films comprise the same compositional homogeneity as the starting target composition for a given alloy or composite material is not one of them. True, each individual element...

Production of Metal Alloy Sputtering Targets

There are a number of different ways to manufacture sputtering targets. Depending on the composition of the target being considered for production it is necessary to choose the proper method of consolidation that best suits the metallurgical criteria required for the...

Sputter Yield of Allow Sputtering Targets

As most of our customers around the world are well aware, the process of sputtering involves charged particles, or ions, (gaseous molecules with an outer electron stripped off containing a positive charge) bombarding negatively charged sputtering target atoms or...

Dark Space Shields

There are a lot of reasons why there may be an arcing problem during the plasma deposition process during sputtering. During the sputtering process a gas, typically argon unless a reactive deposition is required, is transformed from a neutral state or insulating state...